It’s clear out, it’s a rotten night on telly, and you really ought to get out there and learn a few constellations. Oh OK, it’s a good night on telly, but that’s what recorders and catch-up are for. Save it up for a rainy evening and get out there now and do some stargazing!
Now it can get pretty cold in December, so the smart astronomers make sure they put on more than just two T-shirts. Who cares what you look like – this is astronomy, not a fashion show. Being cool is one thing, being absolutely frozen is another. Bobble hats, anoraks, even stretch a point and wear gloves. The more comfortable you are, the better you will enjoy stargazing.
You will need a star map, and you will need to know how it works. This may seem obvious, but there is a knack to understanding these things. Here is our map for this month:
Wrong way round?
Now don’t write in and tell us that we have the points of the compass all wrong. This is a map of the sky, so you have to hold it over your head. When you do this, east and west will be the right way round. How you hold your computer above your head is up to you!
It shows the whole sky, so the scale is quite small. Normally you turn to see different parts of it, so to see the view looking north, for example, hold the map upside down with north at the bottom.
The map shows the sky in the middle of the month at about 8 pm, at the start of the month at 9 pm, or by the end of the month at 7 pm.
|TIP If you aren’t sure of the direction of north from your location, click here for a page on Getting Your Bearings.|
Making sense of the stars
One constellation or star group that many people recognise straight away is the Plough. This is low down in the north at the moment, so turn the map upside down (once you’ve printed it out, of course, clever clogs) and you will see the seven-star pattern near the horizon. OK, it might not look much like one of those spiky things you see rusting away in the corner of a field, but these names were given a long time ago, when ploughs were, well, different. If you’re American, you probably call it the Big Dipper – and dippers aren’t around these days either.
So think of it as a saucepan instead. The distance across the saucepan to the tip of the handle is just about the same as your outstretched hand at arm’s length. Once you have found this, you will get an idea of the scale of the map compared with the sky.
Next turn round so you’re facing south and look over to the west for the three stars marked Deneb, Vega and Altair. Vega is also one of the brightest stars in the sky. Altair has two fainter stars on either side of it, though in a poor sky you may only see the upper one. The three bright stars, Vega, Deneb and Altair, are called the Summer Triangle, even though they are still visible well into autumn and even winter, like now.
Once you’ve found the Summer Triangle, look to the south and find the Square of Pegasus, which is shown in greater detail on the map below.
Things to look for
This bit of the sky is not exactly teeming with bright stars, so unless you live in the country you may not see much at all. But you should be able to see the Square of Pegasus, quite a way up in the sky and larger than it appears on the map. If you want to be picky about it, it’s not really a square, but don’t just expect too much. The stars are not too bright, either, but it’s a useful signpost to other constellations at this time of year, and particularly to the Andromeda Galaxy (see below).
But while on the subject of constellations (star groups), use the map to pick out the three bright stars of Andromeda, one of which is shared with the Square. They lead on to Perseus, at the top left.
Below Andromeda are three stars in Aries, quite close together, and below that are the stars of Cetus. From towns only Diphda is likely to be visible, though this year there’s a wonderful visitor which is worth looking for – the star Mira. See our news story for details. Although it was written in October, Mira is still bright enough to be visible with the naked eye this December. And to prove that it can be seen even in lousy skies, here’s a picture to prove it.
To the left of Aries, which is the south-east, you can see the fantastic star cluster called the Pleiades – that’s pronounced Ply-a-deez. They are also known as the Seven Sisters. Count them – if you have good eyes there are nine, and a lot more fainter ones. Nine of the stars have names, but two of them are the parents of the seven sisters, you see, so it all works out in the end. The Pleiades and Aldebaran are in Taurus.
If you want a map with all the constellation names on it, click here.
Finding the Andromeda Galaxy, M31
This really is quite easy to find once you know the trick, and even if you live in a city you should be able to find it using binoculars. You start from the Square of Pegasus, count two stars to the left and two stars up, and there it is. Look at the map and you will see which stars to count.
Unless the sky is very clear, you may need to use a trick to actually see it. This is called averted vision, which means not looking directly at it but a short distance away from where you know it to be. This works because your eyes are more sensitive to light away from the centre of vision. M31 is a faint oval shape, more or less as it appears on the map.
This little fuzzy blob is a galaxy just like our own Milky Way, but over 2.5 million light years away. It is the most distant object visible to the unaided eye. It contains around a trillion – that is, a million million – stars.
With that many stars, the chances are that there are at least some planets with life forms that are looking at our own galaxy at exactly the same moment as you, and probably wondering how many heads and arms (or slimy tentacles) you have. Or at least they were, 2.5 million years ago when the light left the galaxy. There are different aliens there now, but the appearance of galaxies doesn’t change much in 2.5 million years.
Look out for shooting stars
There are certain times of year when shooting stars – known to astronomers as meteors – are particularly likely, and the days on either side of 14 December is one such time when the Geminid meteors put on a show. The Geminids have become more plentiful in recent years, and they are now the best meteor shower of the whole year. Unfortunately, this is a poor year to see them because the Moon is full on 12 December, making it hard to see all but the brightest meteors. But the media will still tell you that it will be an amazing sight, so you may be tempted to see what all the fuss is about.
Even in a good year you are only likely to see one every few minutes or so, and this year you might see half a dozen in an hour if you are lucky and have good, clear skies. The trouble with meteors is that they can sometimes be a bit like waiting for a bus that never comes. You know they ought to be there, but somehow nothing happens. Then just as you turn away, whoosh, you just missed one and see it from the corner of your eye – or worse still, someone else starts jumping around and screeching because they’ve seen a real stonker.
So where do you look? These meteors can appear just about anywhere in the sky, although they come from the direction of Gemini (marked by the star Pollux on the circular map at top) which is rising in the east during the evening. This is why they are known as the Geminid meteors. If you see one, trace its path back and if it comes from Gemini, it’s probably a real Geminid. There can be random meteors from other parts of the sky as well.
A meteor looks like a brief streak of light, as shown in the picture, usually lasting less than a second, and is caused when a tiny particle of dust from the tail of a comet that went past long ago collides with Earth and meets its doom as it burns up in our atmosphere. There is no danger from meteors – they are always too tiny ever to reach the ground. It wasn’t meteors that saw off the dinosaurs.
You can find out more about the Geminids, and also another shower called the Ursids, in our Meteor Section, where you can also find out how to observe these shooting stars.
There’s just one planet easily visible in the evening sky at the moment, and that’s Venus. But you won’t find it on the map, because it’s only visible low in the south-west just after sunset, well before our map time. Start looking for it about half an hour after sunset, just to the left of where the Sun went down. It’s bright, but being in the twilight sky you may need to search a bit for it. On the 10th, 11th and 12th it’s particularly close to Saturn, which is much fainter although you should be able to see it when the sky has got a bit darker.
Being Christmastime, people might spot Venus and ask you, as the only astronomer they know, if it is the Star of Bethlehem. So get in ahead of them and check it out before they ask. On the 28th and 29th the thin crescent Moon will be close to Venus, making a great photo-opportunity for that new phone camera you got for Christmas.
Jupiter is too close to the Sun to be seen, except right at the start of the month when it is low down in the south-west near Venus after sunset. Mercury is in the morning sky in the first two weeks of the month, although it becomes hard to see after about the 17th. Mars in also in the morning sky, fairly low in the south-east before sunrise.
What about the Moon, then?
At the very start of the month the Moon is a crescent in the evening sky, as New Moon was on 26 November. There’s first quarter on the 4th, then full Moon is on the 12th. Last quarter is on the 19th, and the month ends with new Moon on the 26th. If it’s clear on the 27th take a look to the south-west and you might spot the very thin crescent Moon close to Saturn. It’ll be easier to see on the 28th, when it will be below and to the right of Venus, and on the 29th.
Sorry, no eclipses this month.
We have a whole section of the website devoted to the Moon and its features.
The full Moon in December is very high up and bright, so here are some full Moon facts (and one that isn’t).
- When the Moon is really high up, like in that nursery rhyme that claims it is as bright as day, you can’t see any colour in anything that’s illuminated by the Moon only (that is, out in the country where there is no light pollution). This is because your eyes are not sensitive to colour in dim light.
- The sky close to the Moon appears bluish, just as it does by day. This is what makes you think that moonlight is blue, and is why they use a blue filter in the movies when they want to pretend that the scene is lit by moonlight.
- Actually, moonlight is slightly redder then sunlight.
- If you take a time-exposure photo by moonlight, without any light pollution around, the colours appear just as they do by day. The camera can go on building up light and show the true colours, unlike your eye. And the Moon is high up, so it looks like a summer’s day although there are no leaves on the trees.
- Those stories that there are more hospital emergencies and murders when the Moon is full are nonsense. The only reason people think this is that the Moon is more noticeable when it is full than at most other phases. And most people think it is full for two or three days on either side of the actual date, so there are several days in the month when it appears to be full. So that increases the chances of people linking anything with the full Moon.
Get more helpful info
Text by Robin Scagell