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About the SPA Lunar Section

No doubt you've looked at the Moon and have been amazed by the sheer wealth of detail visible. If you have a small telescope, within your grasp are many thousands of craters, ranging from grand old flooded craters like Ptolemaeus to more 'recent' asteroidal impact craters like Aristarchus, Tycho and Copernicus with their bright ray systems.
 

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Above: Waning gibbous Moon, photographed with a cheap hand-held digicam at the telescope eyepiece -- point and click.

Just about every other class of lunar feature can be seen - mountains, hills, domes, rilles, clefts, faults and valleys. Lunar observation is by far the most visually rewarding branch of astronomy. Through binoculars and small telescopes the Moon's surface resolves into a remarkable collection of seas, mountains and many hundreds of craters. Lunar observation is undoubtedly the most visually rewarding branch of astronomy.

There are two kinds of lunar observer: the visual observer who enjoys viewing the Moon through the eyepiece and making sketches of objects of interest, and the photovisual observer who delights in capturing images of the Moon. Both pursuits are welcomed by the SPA Lunar Section. Below, we look at drawing the Moon. If you're interested in lunar imaging, take a look 'Imaging' in the Resources tab above.

Above: Webcam image of the Moon, webcast by Peter Grego, showing the crater Albategnius.

Below: Observational drawing of Albategnius, 25 January 1984, by Peter Grego.

Why draw the Moon?

A lunar observer can be defined as anyone who looks at the Moon with a purpose. That purpose may be to undertake serious and painstaking scientific research. Alternatively - and, it must be stressed, just as meaningful an activity - most amateur astronomers observe the Moon for the sheer pleasure of it. The constantly changing vistas of the Moon's surface are every bit as visually stimulating as the contemplation of an impressionist painting - the beauty is that the Moon belongs to everyone and doesn't cost a penny to look at! Most lunar observers regard the telescope eyepiece as if it were the porthole of their very own Apollo command module. The privilege of just seeing is satisfying enough, yet ever since Galileo sketched the lunar craters nearly four hundred years ago, many observers have striven to keep some kind of permanent record of their forays around the Moon's surface.

Powerful CCD technology is becoming ever more commonplace. Instantaneous and highly accurate records may be secured and later enhanced to reveal features which the eye alone could not hope to discern. It is tempting to dismiss the efforts of the observer who sketches the Moon's features (and, for that matter, any other celestial object), for what possible reason is there to engage in an activity which appears to belong in the distant past?

There is no doubt that the amateur astronomer who takes the opportunity to make lunar drawings will discover an activity which improves every single aspect of his or her observing skills. The Moon is packed with very fine detail, and the ability to discern this is found to constantly improve with hours spent at the eyepiece. During a course of lunar "apprenticeship" the apparent confusion of the Moon's landscape becomes increasingly familiar. I have had the honour of seeing the work of hundreds of newcomers to lunar observation in the SPA Lunar Section, and without exception everyone's observing abilities have been enhanced.

How to draw the Moon

Many of the section's members make observational drawings of the Moon's surface. I would suggest that you begin finding your way around the Moon by attempting to draw small areas of the lunar surface which lie near to the terminator - the dividing line between the illuminated and unilluminated hemispheres. Here, lots of shadow is thrown out by the low elevation of the Sun, and you've plenty to see. Choose only small areas to begin with, say an individual crater, and remember to take your time whilst doing so.

Allow yourself around an hour or two per sketch. Try to identify the feature you are observing whilst at the eyepiece. Do have confidence in your own drawing abilities - disregard everything your art teacher ever told you. The lunar observer isn't some kind of weird nocturnal art student - marks aren't given for artistic flair or aesthetic appeal. Observational honesty and accuracy counts above all. Few of the great lunar observers have been "good" at drawing - the Hanoverian selenographer Johann Schröter (1745 - 1816), the American Fred Price and Patrick Moore are just three examples of the non-artistic Moon observer.

To improve your sketching skills I recommend that you practice by drawing sections of lunar photographs which appear in books and magazines. Invest £5 in a set of soft-leaded pencils from HB to 5B and an A5 pad of smooth cartridge paper. Basic outlines are first drawn lightly, using a soft pencil, giving you the chance to erase anything dubious if the need arises. When shading dark areas try to put minimal pressure onto the paper; the darkest areas are ideally shaded in layers, and not in one mad frenzy of pencil pressure. After several attempts at "armchair" Moon drawing you will surprise yourself at how quickly you improve.

Stages in making a lunar observational drawing (crater La Condamine by Peter Grego)

The most important thing to remember is to be patient. Do not rush, even if you are only practising. Binoculars should be on a steady mount or tripod, leaving your hands free. When the Moon is sharply focused in the eyepiece don't be intimidated by the sheer wealth of detail. Find your bearings with a decent map of the Moon. Select and identify just a small target area of the Moon's surface, such as an individual crater, preferably one close to the lunar terminator where most relief detail is visible. If possible, go back indoors and make a light outline drawing of your chosen area; this will save time and give you a distinct advantage at the eyepiece. It is reasonable to set yourself about an hour or two per observation. Patience is vital because a rushed sketch is bound to be inaccurate and frustrating. Make your drawing at least 50 mm across, larger if you are attempting a region full of detail. Unusual and interesting features should be highlighted by making short written notes. Of course, record the usual essential observing information, such as date, start and finish times (UT), instrument and seeing. Remember to produce your neat drawings (one for your own files and one for the SPA Lunar Section) as soon as possible after the observing session, while the information is still fresh in your mind.